The verbal noun 'parenting' repels instantly. The small HGs were not 'parented' but brought up. As were their parents. And their grandparents before them. They were involved in kinship constellations engaged in myriad exchanges, large and small, that provided the background against which their formal instruction in school was set - and judged, and adjusted or refuted, as well as accepted.
The notion 'parenting' deliberately confounds the meeting of immediate physical needs with the provision of an upbringing. A hundred pounds the state is offering to reduce (or traduce) a child's birthright into advice on how to change a nappy.
Even Hilary Clinton knows that to bring up a child it takes a village.
Hang 'em High
5 hours ago